Top-down methods were favored in software engineering until the late s,  and object-oriented programming assisted in demonstrating the idea that both aspects of top-down and bottom-up programming could be utilized. According to college teaching notes written by Charles Ramskov, [ who? This strategy often resembles a "seed" model, by which the beginnings are small, but eventually grow in complexity and completeness. Retrieved October 21, This method is used in the analysis of both natural languages and computer languagesas in a compiler.
Top-down and bottom-up design
However, black boxes may fail to clarify elementary mechanisms or be detailed enough to realistically validate the model. However, "organic strategies" may result in a tangle of elements and subsystems, developed in isolation and subject to local optimization as opposed to meeting a global purpose. It is common for populations to be influenced by both types of control. Micropatterning techniques, such as photolithography and inkjet printing belong to this category. A " top-down " approach is where an executive decision maker or other top person makes the decisions of how something should be done.
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By defining how the application comes together at a high level, lower level work can be self-contained. Top-down and bottom-up are both strategies of information processing and knowledge ordering, used in a variety of fields including software, humanistic and scientific theories see systemicsand management and organization. Journal of Nursing Care Quality.